Discuss the difference between the terms gene, transcription unit, locus and allele.

Question 1 (10 points)Compare and contrast mutations and polymorphisms. Be specific and provide examples.
2.)Explain the various ways that each of these can occur within a DNA sequence:1. substitution2. deletion3. insertion
Question 3 (10 points)A female fruit fly who was not exposed to a mutagen, but whose father was exposed, mated with another non-exposed male (wild-type). All of their progeny seem normal, but there are twice as many female offspring compared to males.1. Develop a testable hypothesis to explain these results.2. How could you test your hypothesis? Be specific.
Question 4 (10 points)Suppose you want to figure out what genes are involved in the production of proline (Pro) in a certain bacteria.(1) How would you go about designing a mutant screen to do so?(2) Suppose your screen identified 5 mutants that barely grew without being given Pro in the medium. How would you go about determining the number of different genes these mutants represent?Question 5 (10 points)Discuss the difference between the terms gene, transcription unit, locus and allele. Discuss within the context of what is presented in the course materials, and be specific.
Question 6 (10 points)A cross between a wild-type fruit fly strain and various true-breeding mutant strains (all at a single locus) for bristle mutations resulted in the following phenotypes:Mutant Bristle Phenotype1 0.20 shorter2 0.30 longer3 0.75 shorter4 bent and damaged, non-functional5 no bristlesUsing Muller’s Morphs classification, Mutant 1 could be considered what type of “morph?”Question 6 options:Gain-of-function morphHypomorphNeomorphAntimorphAmorphQuestion 7 (10 points)If a certain species has more chromosomes than another species, does that mean it has(1) more DNA? Explain.(2) more genes? Explain.
Question 8 (10 points)If an organism has a diploid chromosome number of 8 (2n = 8), how many chromosomes will it have in its cell after G2 phase?Question 8 options:foureightsixteenthirty-twoQuestion 9 (10 points)(1) In people, the X chromosome is bigger than the Y chromosome. Does that mean females have more DNA than males? Explain.(2) What would happen if the SRY gene was moved to chromsome 2, adjacent to the LCT gene? Would SRY still be able to carry out is function? Why or why not? If no, what would be the consequences? Be specific.
Question 10 (10 points)Explain the difference between DNA, chromatin, and chromosomes, as presented in the content of this course.

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