W4 Discussion – PM Topic: Literature Review 3 1. Primary Post:-Get Answer Now

W4 Discussion – PM Topic: Literature Review 3 1. Primary Post:-Get Answer Now
W4 Discussion – PM Topic: Literature Review 3 

1. Primary Post: Post at least one primary response.
A minimum of two responses to fellow students must be posted on separate days by midnight (EST) Sunday. This will earn you a grade of B. You must exceed the minimum to earn full credit.
In this Week’s discussion, search for an additional five or more peer-reviewed papers that discuss/address your topic of interest and investigation. The main objective of reading these different papers is to add to your previous literature review search and enhance your understanding of what other researchers in the field have done. After reading the additional five articles or more, update the Table you created in Week 3 and summarize each research found about your topic of interest.
Paper Title
Author/s and year of publication: (i.e., Author last name, 2021)
Research question/s
Research design/methodology (i.e., survey, literature review, mathematical mode, etc.)
Main findings/results
Suggestions for future research (if any)
Write a summary description of what you have found from your readings for this week.
2. Secondary Responses: Post at least two of your secondary responses to other students’ discussions no later than Sunday evening by 11:59 pm of the same week. Please provide your feedback on their topics by asking questions and critiquing the investigation for any two primary posts.
Hi everyone, 
This week, I have explored more peer reviews in enhancing my understanding of scope control!
One way to effectively control project scope is to conduct proper stakeholder analysis. Different stakeholders have different power, influence, impact and interest which results in different expectations and priorities. Conducting a comprehensive analysis of stakeholders’ expectations especially expectations regarding the project scope would help project managers balance the expectations of all involved stakeholders (Ajmal et al., 2020, p. 490).
Before every project is conducted, there must be a critical needs assessment performed to identify and determine both the customer and business needs for such a project. Needs assessment to determine what needs to be accomplished and solve customers’ problems to reach their expectations and the project goal which focuses on the objectives of the project and targeted strategies. Externally, a macroeconomic analysis using the PESTEL technique can give a clear understanding of the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal influence on the project outcome. Also, a vivid internal SWOT analysis could be made to determine the project organization’s fit to perform such a project. The needs assessments help the project manager to determine product requirements and establish project scope to deliver project outcomes that provide value and competitive advantage to support business objectives (Johnson, 2000, p. 275).  
Earned Value Management (EVM) depicts the project progress in terms of scope, cost, and schedule and provides future predictions based on trends and patterns of the past. Using the earned value management will assist the project manager to control changes in project scope by conducting a forecast about the effect of any project changes on the constraints based on the project performance trends (Lipke et al., 2009, p. 400).
The Work Breakdown Structure is an essential tool in controlling project scope. The WBS is a hierarchal decomposition of all the work to be performed. This ensures that all requirements are factored into the working plan, and all changes are accounted for. Everything that is in the WBS will be produced and anything that is not in the WBS will not be delivered. The WBS creates a basis for other project planning like project scheduling, cost estimates and tracking project performance. However, there is no single correct way to break down the project activities because each project is different from the other depending on project priorities and complexities (Sharon & Dori, 2015, p. 370).
Finally, project managers must have an approved scope baseline against which all formal changes are measured and documented. The project baseline provides an acceptable standard to which changes are measured against triple constraints of scope, cost and schedule. Hence, any changes to any of the triple constraints or a combination of trade-offs will inevitably have an impact on the project performance (Kraus & Cressman, 1992, p. 15).
Ajmal, M., Khan, M., & Al-Yafei, H. (2020). Exploring Factors Behind Project Scope Creep- Stakeholders’ Perspective. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 13(3), 483-504
Johnson, N. (2000). Conducting an internal needs analysis to select tools for outcomes projects. Formulary, 35(3), 274-280. https://link.ezproxy.neu.edu/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/conducting-internal-needs-analysis-select-tools/docview/229987398/se-2?accountid=12826
Kraus, W. E., & Cressman, K. R. (1992). Project Scope Definition: A Practical Approach: a Publication of the American Association of Cost Engineers. Cost Engineering, 34(12), 15. https://link.ezproxy.neu.edu/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/project-scope-definition-practical-approach/docview/220410301/se-2?accountid=12826
Lipke, W., Zwikael, O., Henderson, K., & Anbari, F. (2009). Prediction of project outcome: The application of statistical methods to earned value management and earned schedule performance indexes. International Journal of Project Management, 27(4), 400. https://link.ezproxy.neu.edu/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/prediction-project-outcome-application/docview/211137234/se-2?accountid=12826
Sharon, A., & Dori, D. (2015). A Project-Product Model-Based Approach to Planning Work Breakdown Structures of Complex System Projects. IEEE Systems Journal, 9(2), 366–376. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSYST.2013.2297491
In this week’s research, the articles that I have been focusing on in relation to project scope management is its processes and project success. Part of the failure of a project is the scope management’s understanding of the project and what it entails. This leads to mismanagement, bad staffing, and miss calculated costs that can drive the project to over runs, missed deadlines, and overall failure. By defining the project at the onset and knowing what it is going to involve in terms of each element of the scope, the project can stay on track. Scope management success also involves controlling scope change in its plan. By identifying the change and deciding if the change is important to the success of the project is key. In addition, it is also important to communicate with the sponsor, stakeholders, and other team members in order to avoid scope creep as well as to take accountability in order to keep control of the project. Users are also important to the success of scope management.  Users involved in a project offer many ideas and areas of expertise that can be beneficial to the project team and add to the scope management plan. Working in depth with them throughout the project allows for not only control of the management plan but ensure any scope changes are following project rules. If the project manager keeps control of the project scope from the beginning, and throughout the project, the less issues may arise, and the more successful the project will be in the end.
Alkhaffaf, M. (2018). The role of user involvement in the success of Project Scope Management. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 9(11). https://doi.org/10.14569/ijacsa.2018.091157 (Links to an external site.)
Luiz Lampa, I., de Godoi Contessoto, A., Rici Amorim, A., Francisco Donegá Zafalon, G., Valêncio, C. R., & Souza, R. C. (2017). Project Scope Management: A strategy oriented to the requirements engineering. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems. https://doi.org/10.5220/0006318603700378 (Links to an external site.)
Marnada, P., Raharjo, T., Hardian, B., & Prasetyo, A. (2022). Agile Project Management Challenge in handling scope and change: A systematic literature review. Procedia Computer Science, 197, 290–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2021.12.143 (Links to an external site.)
Mirza, M. N., Pourzolfaghar, Z., & Shahnazari, M. (2013). Significance of scope in Project Success. Procedia Technology, 9, 722–729. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.protcy.2013.12.080 (Links to an external site.)
tommochal. (2014, November 16). Poor scope-management practices could precipitate project failure. TechRepublic. Retrieved May 4, 2022, from https://www.techrepublic.com/article/poor-scope-management-practices-could-precipitate-project-failure/ (Links to an external site.).

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