I need the peer response for this discussion.Jean Watson and Kristen Swanson Nursing TheoriesCaring has always been considered a natural and integral aspect of nursing. It is the core and essence of nursing. The human caring theory developed by Watson in the late 1970s (1975-1979) is a grand theory embracing ten carative factors. Building on Watson’s theory of caring, Swanson proposed her caring theory, a middle range theory that embraces five caring processes, in 1991(Hayne et al., 2020).Jean Watson’s caring science an interdisciplinary approach that includes concepts from the fields of philosophy, ethics, ecology, and mind-body-spirit medicine to describe a caring practice that extends the beyond the patient, the community, the world, and universe (Watson, 2008). Watson describes a healing practice that cares for the spirit or soul of the patient by being in authentic relation during that space in time. Compassion is a necessary element of the care patients require at the end of life. Jean Watson describes compassion as the “capacity to bear witness to, suffer with, and hold dear with in our heart the sorrow and beauties of the world” (Watson, 0000). Nurses are required to provide competent, compassionate, and culturally sensitive care for patients and their families at the time of diagnosis of a serious illness through the end of life. Spiritual care highlights the role of compassionate presence. The nurse who being authentically present, listens deeply and creates an environment of trust which allows the patient to share deep concerns (Costello, 2018).Kristen Swanson’s theory states that caring proceeds in a sequence of five categories: knowing, being with, doing for, enabling, and maintaining belief. When applied to nursing practice, each of these five stages stimulates the caregiver’s attitude and improves the overall patient well-being. The theory aims at helping nursing staff to deliver care that promotes dignity, respect, and empowerment. This model was framed to ensure consistent caring behaviors which would, in turn, improve patient satisfaction. The structure of caring in ‘Swanson’s Middle Range Caring Theory’ enlightens nurses and caregivers on the significance of caring. Caring process and its observable and practical criterion are distinguishing humanitarian behaviors which are mandatory in nursing (Hayne et al., 2020).The highly significant are those of compassion, knowledge, optimism, reflection, concern and commitment, communication skills, focus on the others experience, respect for individual dignity/worth and being present to the other. If these theories could effectively be used to guide clinical practice, the nurses can ensure a personal approach to care.Hayne, A. N., Schlosser, S. P., & McDaniel, G. S. (2020). A caring model for nursing education. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 17(1) doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijnes-2019-0072Costello, M. (2018). Watson’s caritas processes as a framework for spiritual end of life care for oncology patients. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 11(2) 639
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