Write an application of a decision making framework to an IT-related ethical issue.

Applicationof a decision making framework to an IT-related ethical issue.
Explore andapply a decision making framework to an IT-related ethical issue. Aframework provides a methodical and systematic approach for decision making.
Decision-makingframeworks
Reynolds Seven-StepApproachGet the facts – Before proceeding,ensure that you have assembled the relevant facts regarding the ethical issuethat you’re addressing.Identify the stakeholders – Identifywho is impacted by this situation and its subsequent resolution. Define whattheir role is as well as what would be the best-case outcome for eachstakeholder group.Consider the consequences – What arethe benefits and/or harm that could come from your decision to youindividually, the stakeholders, and the organization as a whole?Evaluate the various guidelines,policies, and principles – First look to any applicable laws, then to anyexisting corporate policies, ethical codes, and individual principles. Look atthe application of traditional ethical theories as well as Normative Theoriesof Business Ethics.Develop and evaluate options – Youmay identify several possible solutions and may find it useful to support eachwith key principles that support the recommendation. Your chosen solutionshould be ethically defendable and, at the same time, meet the stakeholder andorganizational needs and obligations.Review your decision – Review yourdecision in relationship to your personal and the organization’s values. Wouldothers see this as a good and right decision?Evaluate the results – Did the finaloutcome achieve the desired results? This is an important step to help developand increase your decision-making abilities.Kidder’sNine StepsRecognize that there is a moralissue.Determine the actor (whose moralissue is it?).Gather the relevant facts.Test for right-versus-wrong issues.Test for right-versus-rightparadigms (what sort of dilemma is this?).Apply the resolution principles(ends-based, rule-based, or care-based).Investigate the “trilemma”options (look for common ground or compromise).Make the decision.Revisit and reflect on the decision.Spinello’sSeven-Step Process.Identify and formulate the basicethical issues in each case. Also, consider legal issues and whether ethicaland legal issues are in conflict.What are your first impressions,your moral intuition about the problem?Consult appropriate formalguidelines, the ethical and/or professional codes.Analyze the issues from theviewpoint of one or more of the three ethical frameworks.Do the theories lead to a singlesolution, or do they offer competing alternatives? If competing, whichprinciple or avenue of reasoning should take precedence?What is your normativeconclusion—what should happen?What are the public-policyimplications of this case and your normative recommendations? Should therecommended behavior be prescribed through policies and laws?
Major Ethical Theories
Teleology (Consequentialism)Utilitarianism – Seeks the greatestgood for the greatest number of people; wants to make the world a better placeEgoism – Seeks to maximize one’sindividual benefit and minimize harm to self; key idea: survival.Altruism – Seeks to maximizedecisions and actions based on interests of others, even if at own individualexpense; opposite of egoism.Common Good – Based on theassumption that within society, we are all pursuing common goals and values.Deontology (Rights and Duties)Duty-Based Ethics (Pluralism) – Basedon Kant’s categorical imperative: all acts can be made into a universalmaximum; act always as an end (not a means)Rights-Based (Contractarianism) – Seeksaction or policy that best upholds the human rights of individuals involved(foundation for United States form of government).Fairness and Justice Approach – Equalsshould be treated equally; favoritism and discrimination are unethical.Virtue – Seeks to encourage all todevelop to their highest potentialForthis paper, the following five elements must be addressed:
Describe acurrent IT-related ethical issue: Since this is a paper exercise, not a real-timesituation, you may want to construct a brief scenario wherethis issue comes into play, and thus causes an ethical dilemma. Thedilemma may affect you, your family, your job, or your company; or it may be amatter of public policy or law that affects the general populace. Seethe list below for a list of suggested issues, which may be a source of ethicaldilemmas.Define aconcise problem statement thatis extracted from the above description or scenario. Itis best if you define a specific problem caused by the dilemma, thatneeds a specific ethical decision to be made, that will solve the dilemma.Be aware that if it is a matter of public policy or law, that it mayrequire a regulatory body or congressional approval to take action to implementa solution.Analyze yourproblem using one of the structureddecision-making frameworks chosen from above. Make sure that you identifythe decision-making framework utilized. In addition, the steps in thedecision-making framework selected must be used as major headings in theAnalysis section.Consider andstate the impact of the decision that you made on an individual, an organization, stakeholders,customers suppliers, and the environment, as applicable!State anddiscuss the applicable ethical theory fromabove that supports your decision.Concerningyour paper:
Use headingsfor each topic criteriaInclude a Cover Page.Reminder: Each of the steps for whatever framework that youselect must be a major heading in the Analysis section of yourpaper.
Hereare some suggested issues for you to consider, the additional text is designedto help you flesh out the issue:
1.Privacy onthe Web: What is happening now in termsof privacy on the Web? Think about recent abuses and improvements. Describe andevaluate Web site policies, technical and privacy policy protections, andcurrent proposals for government regulations.2.PersonalData Privacy Regulations in Other Countries: Reporton personal data privacy regulations, Web site privacy policies, andgovernmental/law enforcement about access to personal data in one or morecountries; e.g., the European Union. This is especially relevant as ourglobal economic community expands and we are more dependent on non-US clientsfor e-business over the Internet.3.Computer-BasedCrimes: Discuss the most prevalent typesof computer crimes, such as Phishing. Analyze why and how these can occur.Describe protective measures that might assist in preventing or mitigatingthese types of crimes.4.GovernmentSurveillance of the Internet:The 9/11 attacks on the US in 2001 brought many new laws and permits moregovernment surveillance of the Internet. Is this a good idea?5.The DigitalDivide: Does it exist; what does itlook like; and, what are the ethical considerations and impact?6.Privacy inthe Workplace – Monitoring Employee Web andE-Mail Use: What are current opinions concerning the monitoring of employeecomputer use. What policies are employers using? Should this practice ofmonitoring, be authorized or not?7.MedicalPrivacy: Who owns your medical history?What is the state of current legislation to protect your health information? Isit sufficient? There are new incentives with federal stimulus financingfor health care organizations to develop and implement digital health records.8.SoftwarePiracy: How many of you have ever made anunauthorized copy of software, downloaded software or music (free or for afee), or used copyrighted information without giving proper credit or askingpermission? Was this illegal or just wrong? How is this being addressed?9.9. Consumer Profiling:With every purchase you make, every Web site you visit, your preferences arebeing profiled. What is your opinion regarding the legal authority of theseorganizations to collect and aggregate this data?10. Biometrics & Ethics: Yourfingerprint, retinal-vessel image, and DNA map can exist entirely as a digitalimage in a computer, on a network, or in the infosphere. What new and oldethical problems must we address?11. Social Networking: What are some of the ethical issues surrounding using newsocial networks? How are these now considered for business use?What are business social communities? Are new/different protections andsecurity needed for these networks?12. Medicine and Psychiatry in Cyberspace: Some considerations include: privacy issues; security;third-party record-keeping; electronic medical records; access to information,even by the patient (patient rights); access to information by outsiderswithout patient knowledge; authority to transfer and/or share information. Arethere any policies proposed by professional organizations?13. Counterterrorism and Information Systems: Your protection versus your rights14. Open-source Software versus Closed-source Software: Ethical ramifications and impact on intellectualproperty law15. Creative Commons Licenses: Howdo they work and what are the legal and ethical impacts and concerns?16. Universal ID card: Whatis the general position of the U.S. government about issuing each individual aunique ID card? Which individual U.S. government agencies have already provideda unique ID card? What steps have been taken to include individual IDinformation electronically in passports? How is privacy and security provided?17. Video Games: Doesplaying video games distract from everyday responsibilities? Do video gamescorrelate with real world violence? Why do game creators continually increasethe violence of video games? What is video game addiction?18. Cyberbullying: Whatis cyberbullying and what can be done to stop it?19. Net Neutrality: Whatis the current position of the federal government and is it fair to all?

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